Mania: Symptoms, Causes, Treatment, and Prognosis
26/04/2024 | B MANOGNA REDDY


A state of being highly energetic and characterized by an elated mood often associated with bipolar disorder, but it can occur also in other psychiatric conditions is called mania. It is typified by intense euphoria, increased energy or activity and talkativeness. The intensity and duration of the episodes of mania may vary significantly; hence, they may have a great impact on the behavior, cognition as well as general functioning of a person. Below are some basics about mania:


Symptoms of Mania:

Symptoms of mania may include:

  1. Elevated Mood: Such feelings are consistent joy, happiness or excessive cheerfulness which are not proportional to what the patient might be experiencing.
  2. Hyperactivity: Increased activities levels, restlessness and feeling “on the go” all day long.
  3. Reduced sleep need: Sleeping much less than usual yet being fresh when awake.
  4. Rapid Thoughts and Speech: This involves having several thoughts at once, talking extremely fast and having difficulty focusing on something.
  5. Grandiosity: Over-inflated self-confidence overrated ego’s sense along with unrealistic assessments concerning adequacy in achievement or performance.
  6. Impulsivity: Reckless behaviors like dangerous driving risks such as substance abuse or immense spending.
  7. Poor Judgment: Poor judgment because of impulsive behaviors and grandiose delusions results in impaired decisions making ability and planning.
  8. Distractibility: Racing thoughts and high distractibility often make it hard to concentrate or stay focused on tasks at hand.

Types of Mania:

Mania can occur in different forms, including:

  1. Manic Episode: A clear time of increased mood elevation lasting for a minimum of a week (or less when hospitalization is required) accompanied by other symptoms of mania.
  2. Hypomania: A milder form of mania which shows the same symptoms but shorter duration (four days or more) and less severe intensity. Most cases of hypomania do not affect one’s functioning significantly or require hospitalization.
  3. Mixed Features: Depressive symptoms may accompany manic ones, creating a mixed episode. In addition to depressed mood, low energy, and feelings of worthlessness, this may involve feelings of agitation, irritability or restlessness.

Causes and Risk Factors:

However, the exact causes for mania are not very well understood though some factors can contribute to its development such as:

  1. Biological Factors: Brain chemical abnormalities, neurotransmitter imbalances or mood controlling neural circuits dysfunction may all be involved.
  2. Genetic Predisposition: A family history of bipolar disorder or other mood disorders might enhance chances of developing mania.
  3. Stress and Trauma: Manic episodes can be triggered in vulnerable people by life stressors, traumatic experiences or significant life changes.
  4. Substance Use: Certain substances like stimulants, drugs, and alcohol can cause or worsen manic symptoms among susceptible individuals.


Treatment for mania usually requires a combination of medications, psychotherapy, and changes in lifestyle:

  1. Mood Stabilizers: Prescription medicines that stabilize mood and help prevent further manic episodes include lithium carbonate, anticonvulsant drugs such as valproate sodium (Depakote)and divalproex sodium (Depakene), or atypical antipsychotic agents like olanzapine (Zyprexa)and risperidone (Risperdal).
  2. Psychotherapy: Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT), psychoeducation, interpersonal therapy that assist patients in symptom management, identification of triggers and development of coping strategies
  3. Hospitalization: In severe mania cases, admission to a hospital for stabilization and safety may be required particularly if there is psychosis or significant impairment.
  4. Lifestyle Modifications: Sleeping at specific time schedules, stress reduction, not taking alcohol or abusing drugs and participating in physical activities can assist in stabilizing moods thereby preventing relapses.


The prognosis of manic episodes varies due to factors such as the intensity of the symptoms, treatment response, presence of co-morbidities as well as compliance with medication and therapy.The prognosis for an episode of mania is different for each individual depending on how bad the symptoms are; how he or she reacts to treatment; whether there are any other diseases that accompany it; and whether prescribed medications apart from therapy are taken regularly. When given proper care and help, many patients suffering from this condition can have their symptoms eased and live normal lives again.However, left untreated or poorly managed, mania can result in significant functional impairments, interpersonal difficulties and other negative outcomes.It is important for mental health experts to regularly keep track of these individuals so that they can have the best chances of improving their condition while minimizing relapse risk.

List of manias:


  1. Aboulomania - indecisiveness
  2. Andromania - human sexual behaviour and desire towards males in females Can be replaced by hypersexuality, nymphomania, cytheromania or hysteromania.
  3. Anglomania - England and a passion or obsession with the English (i.e. anglophile)
  4. Arithmomania - numbers and counting
  5. Ablutomania - Mania for washing oneself
  6. Agromania - Intense desire to be in open spaces
  7. Andromania – Nymphomania
  8. Anthomania - Obsession with flowers
  9. Aphrodisiomania - Abnormal sexual interest


  1. Bibliomania - books and reading
  2. Beatlemania - the beatles (an obsession with the Beatles)


  1. Choreomania - dancing


  1. Demonomania - one's own demonic possession (delusional conviction)
  2. Decalcomania - decal (decorative technique of transferring specially prepared paper prints to ceramic surfaces i.e. glass, porcelain, etc.)
  3. Dermatillomania - picking at the skin
  4. Dipsomania - alcohol
  5. Drapetomania - running away from home
  6. Dromomania - traveling


  1. Egomania - oneself and self-worship
  2. Ergomania - work
  3. Erotomania - sexual desire or sexual attraction from strangers (delusional conviction)
  4. Etheromania - ether meaning upper air or sky
  5. Eleutheromania - an intense and irresistible desire for freedom


  1. Glazomania - making lists
  2. Graphomania - writing (grapho- (Greek) meaning to write)


  1. Hypermania - severe mania, mental state with high intensity disorientation and often violent behavior, symptomatic of bipolar disorder
  2. Hypomania - mild mania. mental state with persistent and pervasive elevated or irritable mood, symptomatic of bipolar disorder


  1. Kleptomania - stealing
  2. Klazomania - screaming


  1. Logomania - being wordy and talkative i.e. loquacity
  2. Lisztomania - an obsession with Franz Liszt
  3. Ludomania - gambling


  1. Mania - severely elevated mood
  2. Megalomania - wealth and power
  3. Metromania - writing verse
  4. Micromania - self-deprecation
  5. Monomania - a single object, type of object, or concept
  6. Mythomania - lying


  1. Necromania - being sexual with dead bodies (necrophilia)
  2. Nymphomania - an obsolete term for female hypersexuality


  1. Oniomania - desire to shop
  2. Onychotillomania - picking at the fingernails


  1. Plutomania - money or wealth
  2. Pteridomania - ferns
  3. Pyromania - fire or starting fires
  4. Pseudomania - Irrational predilection for lying


  1. Rhinotillexomania - nose picking


  1. Satyromania - excessive, often uncontrollable sexual desire in and behavior by a man


  1. Theomania - one's own divinity or one's divine mission
  2. Toxicomania - poisons
  3. Trichotillomania - hair removal
  4. Typomania – printing one’s work
  5. Tulipomania – a metaphor for an economic bubble
  6. Trudeaumania – the canadian politician Pierre Yrudeau
Last modified on 26/04/2024



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